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3rd Annual Congress on Infectious Diseases

San Francisco, USA

Darshna Yagnik

Darshna Yagnik

Middlesex University, London, UK

Title: Apple cider vinegar (ACV®) displays potent antibiotic activity directly against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans and within in vitro monocytes exposed to microbes by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine secretion.


Biography: Darshna Yagnik


Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (E-coli) are the most frequent cause of blood borne, urinary tract and hospital acquired infections. Candida albicans infection can also pose a huge threat especially following transplantation and to immunocompromised patients. Globally there has never been a more desperate time for novel anti-microbial agents to target microbes and multi drug resistance from bacterial or fungal associated infections.

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial effects of ACV®. We used microbial strains: E-coli strain 6571, C.albicans strain 90828 purchased from ATCC.  

We tested the effect of commercial ACV® directly on microbial cultures over a 24 hour period, measuring inhibition zones. We also looked at whether ACV® could have an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. This was tested using human blood derived monocytes which were incubated with microbes and AVC®. Collected supernatants were analysed for pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by ELISA.

Results: When monocytes were cultured with both microbes they secreted TNFα and IL-1β. ACV® was able to significantly inhibit E-coli growth demonstrated by the results of direct co-culture with each of the microbial innoculums and ACV® in varying concentrations. The zone of inhibition with the addition of ACV® to each of the microbes varied dose dependently ACV® concentration.  For candida albicans undiluted ACV® had the strongest effect, whereas on E-coli cultures, the most potent effect was visible at lower dilutions including 1/1000 dilution of the neat solution (p<0.05). When monocytes were cultured with both microbes they secreted inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β) ACV® was effective in significantly inhibiting inflammatory cytokine secretion in human peripheral blood monocytes cultured with E-coli and Candida albicans

Conclusion and significance: ACV® displayed potent anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity against E-coli and Candida albicans. We propose that ACV® could be potentially therapeutic in cases of antibiotic resistance and sepsis.