Middlesex University, London, UK
Title: Apple cider vinegar (ACV®) displays potent antibiotic activity directly against Escherichia Coli and Candida albicans and within in vitro monocytes exposed to microbes by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine secretion
Biography: Darshna Yagnik
Introduction: Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (E-coli) are the most frequent cause of blood borne, urinary tract and hospital acquired infections. Candida albicans infection can also pose a huge threat especially following transplantation and to immune compromised patients. Globally there has never been a more desperate time for novel anti-microbial agents to target microbes and multi drug resistance from bacterial or fungal associated infections.
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial effects of ACV®. We used microbial strains: E. coli strain 6571, C. albicans strain 90828 purchased from ATCC.
Methodology: We tested the effect of commercial ACV® directly on microbial cultures over a 24 hour period, measuring inhibition zones. We also looked at whether ACV® could have an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. This was tested using human blood derived monocytes which were incubated with microbes and AVC®. The collected supernatants were analyzed for proinflammatory cytokine secretion by ELISA.
Results: When monocytes were cultured with both microbes they secreted TNFα and IL-1β. ACV® was able to significantly inhibit E-coli growth demonstrated by the results of direct co-culture with each of the microbial inoculums and ACV® in varying concentrations. The zone of inhibition with the addition of ACV® to each of the microbes varied dose dependently
ACV® concentration. For Candida albicans undiluted ACV® had the strongest effect, whereas on E-coli cultures, the most potent effect was visible at lower dilutions including 1/1000 dilution of the neat solution (p<0.05). When monocytes were cultured with both microbes they secreted inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β) ACV® was effective in significantly inhibiting
inflammatory cytokine secretion in human peripheral blood monocytes cultured with E. coli and Candida albicans
Conclusion and significance: ACV® displayed potent anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity against E. coli and Candida albicans. We propose that ACV® could be potentially therapeutic in cases of antibiotic resistance and sepsis.