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5th Annual Congress on Infectious Diseases , will be organized around the theme “Novel Treatment Methods for Infectious Diseases Prevention, Control and Cure”

Infectious Diseases - 2020 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Infectious Diseases - 2020

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The diseases caused by germs and which may infect any part of the body are called infectious diseases. They can be spread by any means where there is a germ. They are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, parasites and fungi. Germs can be spread by direct or indirect contact. Vaccination, maintenance of proper hygiene and medicines help in the prevention of infection.

 

These infectious organisms are known as pathogens. Examples of pathogens encompass bacteria, viruses, fungi, and prions. ... Contamination is the impact of a foreign organism in the frame. Varieties of contamination encompass bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoan, parasitic, and prion disease. Skin is a barrier this is supposed to defend you from bacteria, but microorganism can typically be observed dwelling at the pores and skin of wholesome individuals. A spoil inside the pores and skin can exchange this scenario from an innocent one to one wherein the character can turn out to be ill.

 

An Infectious disease whose occurrence has increased in the past years or threatens to increase is termed as emerging. These diseases include new infections, previously unrecognized infections and old infections reappearing due to antimicrobial resistance, public health issues and unhygienic conditions.

 

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a persistent, doubtlessly lifestyles-threatening condition due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune machine, HIV interferes with your frame's ability to fight the organisms that purpose sickness. HIV is a sexually transmitted contamination (STI). The immune gadget allows the frame to combat off infections. Untreated HIV infects and kills CD4 cells, that is a type of immune cellular referred to as T cells. Over time, as HIV kills extra CD4 cells, the body is more likely to get various kinds of infections and cancers.

 

Infectious diseases prevention and control is helpful to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. Aseptic technique is normally applied to prevent the infections caused by different means. Sterilization is another process of killing microorganisms by the application of heat. Disinfection is the process of killing harmful microorganisms. Some infectious diseases can be prevented by avoiding direct contact with the contagious person. Infections can also be controlled and prevented by creating public awareness on various infectious diseases and their outbreaks. Infections can be cured by various antimicrobials.

 

Mechanism of resistance towards antimicrobials by microorganisms includes the following mechanisms of enzymatic destruction, enzymatic modification, altered target and decreased uptake. Mechanism of resistance is due to the inactivation or modification of antibiotics, an alteration in the target site of the antibiotic that reduces its binding capacity, the modification of metabolic pathways to circumvent the antibiotic effect and the reduced intracellular antibiotic accumulation by decreasing permeability and/ or increasing active efflux of the antibiotic.

 

Antimicrobial/ antibiotic/ antibacterial resistance is the ability of microorganisms to resist the effects of drugs that means diseases causing germs do not get killed and their growth is not stopped.  Antibiotic resistant infections are of greater risk which cannot be avoided completely. Infections with resistant organisms are difficult to treat requiring costly and sometimes toxic alternatives.

 

Medical diagnosis is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. Laboratory tests may identify organisms directly (e.g., visually, using a microscope growing the organism in culture) or indirectly (e.g., identifying antibodies to the organism). General types of tests include microscopy, culture and immunologic tests (agglutination tests such as latex agglutination, enzyme immunoassays, western blot, precipitation tests and complement fixation tests) and nucleic acid/ non nucleic acid based identification methods. Sub types of diagnoses include clinical, laboratory, radiology, principal and admitting diagnosis. Advanced methods have been implemented to diagnose the infection in any part of the body. Examples include biomarkers/ elisa test/ chest x ray/ skin biopsy/ tympanometry and tympanocentesis.

 

Treatment of viral infections such as HIV involves patient care and moral support including antiretroviral therapy. Bacterial infections can be treated by administering antibiotics to the patients. Yeast infections can be primarily treated by sterilisation methods. Parasitic infections can be treated by antiparasitic drugs. Diseases such as cancer can be treated by chemotherapy. Recent techniques have proved that there is no disease that cannot be treated.

 

Vaccines are the products that are able to produce immunity from a disease and can be administered through needle injections, by mouth and by aerosol. Vaccination is the injection of a killed or weakened organism that produces immunity in the body against that organism.

 

Immunology of infections means the battle between pathogens and the host immune defences. Immunology is the branch of science concerned with the various aspects related to immune system, innate and acquired immunity. Immunology also deals with laboratory techniques involving the interaction of antigens with specific antibodies.

 Sexually transmitted diseases/ sexually transmitted infections are the infectious diseases which are transmitted through sexual contact with an infected individual and also transmitted during vaginal or other types of sexual intercourse including oral and anal sex.

 

Pediatric infectious diseases/ childhood infectious diseases are the infectious diseases which are caused in children of different age groups. Pediatric infectious diseases specialist’s takes care of the infections occurring in children and the treatment methods vary for children from adults.

 

Neuro infectious diseases are the infectious diseases which are observed in the nervous system. Viral and immune mediated disorders of the nervous system are among the most challenging neurological disorders. The most common neuro immune disorder is multiple sclerosis and hiv is the most common viral infection of the nervous system.

 

Ebola viral infection is caused by virus transmitted through body fluids and through air. It occurs rarely but it is very deadly which results in death and outbreak. Ebola virus disease symptoms are very severe which appears in 2-3 days. Ebola primary symptoms include fever, sore throat, muscular pain and headaches then followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, decreased function of the liver and kidneys then loss of blood internally and externally finally leading to low blood pressure and fluid loss resulting in death.  Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by aedes mosquitoes. People with zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain and malaise or headache.

Microbial pathogenesis is the study of the molecular mechanisms used by microorganisms to cause disease in humans and animals. By understanding how pathogens cause disease helps in the development of new therapeutic approaches. Virulence is the measure of the pathogenicity of an organism. The degree of virulence is related directly to the ability of the organism to cause infection despite host resistance mechanisms, it is affected by numerous variables such as the number of infecting bacteria, route of entry into the body, specific and nonspecific host defence mechanisms and virulence factors of the bacterium.

 

Surgical site infections are the infections which may occur within 30 days after the operation and are observed in the parts of skin and subcutaneous tissue of the incision.

 

Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection caused by a bacterium called mycobacterium tuberculosis which spread through the lymph nodes and blood stream to any organ in your body. It is most commonly found in the lungs which attack the lungs and it can also attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine and brain.

 

Hepatitis is caused by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. Hepatitis may occur with limited or no symptoms but often leads to jaundice, poor appetite and malaise. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer.

 

Malaria is a mosquito borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single celled microorganisms) belonging to the plasmodium type. Malaria symptoms typically include fever, fatigue, vomiting and headaches which can be observed in 10-15 after being bitten by mosquito. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, comaor and even death.

 

Animal infectious diseases/ zoonosis are important threat to human health since the emergence of human diseases is dominated by zoonotic pathogens. Infectious diseases affect livestock and also wild animals focusing on characterizing the conditions for the pathogen spread and maintenance in the host population.