Samer M Al-Hulu is an Assistant Professor of Microbiology. He has completed his PhD from College of Science, Babylon University. He has published more than 14 papers in microbiology field. He has trained at Ministry of Health at Laboratory of Babylon Maternity and Children Hospital. Presently, he is working at College of Food Science, Al-Qasim Green University.
Superbugs is the term which used for describing of multidrug-resistant organisms that evolved and developed resistance to at least one type of antimicrobial drug or antibiotic. MRSA, VRE, ESBLs are some examples on superbugs. The combating of superbugs can be achieved by proper hand washing and using of good hand hygiene. DNA Sequencing of superbugs playing an important role in combating of spread such as DNA sequencing from patient and compared with database for determining source of infection. Using of Nano-based therapy for combating of superbug such as using of nano metals and metallic oxides which having high activity against board spectrum antibiotic resistant bacteria such as AgNPs which having high activity against MRSA and silver resistant E. coli, also using of Nano-enabled antibiotics such as using drug delivery system and using of other methods such as cellulose nano crystals-porphyrin, CNTs and others. Other solution for combating of superbugs is prevent of antibiotic misuse and overuse which due to developing of resistant for antibiotics via one or more mechanisms of DNA alteration. Essential oil having a new weapon for combating of superbugs, oil is derived from variety of natural sources including plants or component of plants such as flowers, leaves and others, these oil having complex mixtures of chemicals which having antimicrobial activity. Phage therapy is plays an important role for fighting of drug-resistant pathogens.
Jamshaid Iqbal is a consultant at Mubarak Al-Kabir Teaching Hospital, Kuwait and he is the director at center for medical education and faculty of medicine at Kuwait University, Kuwait.
Background: Prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents the most common urologic disease among the elderly males resulting in more than 2 million visits per year. BPH affects about one-quarter of men in their 50s. The pathogenesis of BPH is not yet completely understood however, the role of chronic inflammation is emerging as an important factor in BPH development and progression. Recently, the studies have found that T. vaginalis may be associated with asymptomatic infections in 50-75% of infected men. In this study we investigated the possibility of asymptomatic persistence of T. vaginalis in the prostate gland using benign hyperplastic prostate tissue as prostate condition other than clinical prostatitis.\r\n\r\nMaterials & Methods: We investigated the occurrence of T. vaginalis in prostate tissue of 75 men of >50 years of age suspected and treated for BPH by transurethral resection of the prostate at the Mubarak Al-Kabir Teaching Hospital, Kuwait. The presence of T. vaginalis infection in the prostate tissue was determined by PCR analysis of the DNA extracted from the tissue and Immunocytochemistry of the tissue sections of the prostate tissue. In addition, P16 antigen was also detected in the tissue sections. The antibodies to T. vaginalis were also determined in blood.\r\n\r\nResults: We detected T. vaginalis DNA in 18 of 75 (24%) and P16 antigen in 16/75 (21%) of BPH tissue samples, of which only 7 (39%) BPH tissues were positive by immunocytochemistry. In addition, three T. vaginalis DNA-negative prostate tissues were also positive immunochemistry. T. vaginalis-specific antibodies with predominantly IgG4 antibodies were detected in 23 (31%) cases.\r\n\r\nConclusion: Our preliminary study suggests a direct evidence of T. vaginalis in BPH tissues with no clinical signs of prostatitis. We hypothesize that chronic T. vaginalis infection of prostate tissue may lead to BPH in elderly people.